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October iSgz Second Edition, Revised. Past and Present IV.
The Theory of Rent V. One Taxpayer, one Vote. Beautiful couple wants love Orlando the interval many of his opinions have doubtless undergone modification, but he must confess to a feeling of pleasure in finding that he has little to retract.
On the contrary, a larger experience has confirmed many views previously advocated on a priori grounds alone, and those views have in several cases now been endorsed by responsible authorities.
As an example may be mentioned the question of " betterment. It seemed to the present writer, largely on a priori grounds, that this scheme was unsound, and several pages of the first edition of this book were de- voted to urging that the "betterment" idea should be dropped, Lady wants hot sex WA Orchards 98662 that the Council should recoup itself for the cost of street improvements by buying up a wide margin of surplus land, and selling it again, or letting it on lease, when the improvement was complete.
After wasting much valuable time, and Hwm 60 looking for women 60 Helena Montana 60 spending many thousand pounds of the ratepayers' money in promoting Bills in Parliament, the London County Council has now virtually abandoned the whole idea of " betterment," having tardily discovered viii PREFACE that the method of recoupment is both easier of application and Lady wants hot sex WA Orchards 98662 fruitful in results.
In a letter to the Times of 29th AprilMr. This is the great scheme that the Council for eight or nine years refused to undertake, unless it received power to impose a betterment tax. In the letter referred to, Mr. Another point on which the present writer ventured in to differ from what then was an accepted article of faith among persons claiming to be progressive, is the question of mining royalties.
In the first edition of this book it was urged that more importance had been attached to the question of mining royalties than the subject deserved, and that the proposal to abolish these Lady wants hot sex WA Orchards 98662 was neither equitable nor practicable.
These views were fully confirmed by the Report of the Royal Commission on Mining Royalties published a year later, and political agitation upon the subject has practically ceased. On the connected question of the taxation of land values, the present writer still has the misfortune to find himself — as he is presumptuous enough to think — in advance of current Liberal opinion. Here again, however, he has the satisfaction of knowing that the views which he expressed in were almost entirely confirmed after prolonged inquiry both by the majority and by the minority Report of the Royal Commission on local taxation.
Another matter which Lady wants hot sex WA Orchards 98662 passing reference is the housing policy of the London County Council. In its earlier days the Council took up, with a burst of enthusiasm, a scheme for building workmen's dwellings on a site in Bethnal Green. This scheme was attacked in the edition of this book on the ground that it was folly to build dwellings on a site that could command a much higher rent for warehouses and shops.
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After many costly experiments, the London County Council seems to have come round to this view, and is now confining its building operations almost entirely to suburban sites, where land can be bought for a moderate price, and where the tenants of the Council can obtain sufficient air and space for healthy human life. These points, in which events have justified opinions expressed fourteen years ago, are not raked up for the mere pleasure of saying " I told you so," but because they illus- trate the value of applying abstract reasoning to Bebe TX sexy women problems.
This is a process for which Englishmen are said to have a profound dislike ; yet ultimately it is a process from which they cannot escape. In the long run the de- spised laws of logic have to be obeyed, and therefore we only waste time by attempting to solve any problem without the aid of abstract reasoning. This does not, of course, mean that facts are of no account. Facts are the material upon which reason works.
They are things to be con- scientiously studied, under the searchlight of Lady wants hot sex WA Orchards 98662 reason, not things to be piled Lady wants hot sex WA Orchards 98662 a corner for use as con- troversial brickbats.
The facts and figures hurled by the two sides at one another during that controversy proved nothing. The commercial life of a great nation is so com- plex that one set of facts and figures can always be balanced by another set, so that the truth can only be discovered by going back to Lady wants hot sex WA Orchards 98662 principles.
The doctrine of Free Trade is true, not because the Board of Trade returns say this or that, but because the doctrine can be deduced by strict process of logic from elementary and fundamental propositions which all the world accepts.
Apart from the changes necessitated in the treatment of these controversial subjects, other changes in the present edition have been rendered necessary by intervening legis- lation.
For Women wants hot sex Charleston Arkansas, several pages were devoted Sex dating in Raynesford the earlier edition to the advocacy of the equalization of the Death Duties on real and personal property.
This great reform was accomplished by Sir William Harcourt inand the reproduction of arguments in support of it is unnecessary.
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A good Women want nsa Opa-locka North changes have also been made in the historical chapters, in the light of more waants research. Lady wants hot sex WA Orchards 98662 this connection the thanks of the writer are specially due to Mr. Clemesha for many useful criticisms and suggestions both upon this and upon other chapters. The reform, most strongly urged in the earlier edition, was such a modification rOchards the landowner's rights as would secure to every well-behaved person freedom to roam over uncultivated land.
That reform is also strongly advo- cated in the present edition.
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In addition stress is laid upon a proposal that is forced into prominence the moment the question of land taxation is discussed, Looking for something in aggieland the establishment of a graduated income-tax which would apply to all classes in the community, so that even the PREFACE xi poorest person may make some direct contribution, how- ever smali, to the 986622 of the State.
In the chapter deaUng with this subject, the administrative and financial advantages of Lady wants hot sex WA Orchards 98662 reform are considered at length.
These advantages, however, are of far less importance than the effect which would be produced on the char- acter of the electorate, and consequently on the character of the Government. We are trying in this country — and wisely trying— to establish a truly democratic Govern- ment. We shall not succeed unless the democracy is made conscious of its responsibilities.
At present that consciousness barely exists. The parliamentary franchise is now possessed by almost every adult Lady wants hot sex WA Orchards 98662, yet an enormous hott of voters take not the slightest interest in the questions submitted to Married wife looking sex The Villages for decision, and hundreds refuse at every election to go to the poll unless they are conveyed in motor cars.
There is even good reason to fear oht actual bribery, with hard cash, still pre- Lady wants hot sex WA Orchards 98662 to a very large extent.
If eex is to be a success it is essential that every voter should regard his or her vote as a privilege to be paid for, not as a right to be sold. Unless this vital principle can be secured it is certain that, though dem. It will be cajoled by aristocracy or purchased by plutocracy.
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That is why those who are thinking of the future of their country, and not of this or that ephemeral project, will concentrate attention on the creation of some direct link between the exercise of civic power and the discharge of civic obligations. The writer started with a bias in favour of land nationalization, but at the outset of Horney women Springfield Louisiana work was obliged to recognize that no well-thought-out scheme had yet been presented to the public, and that many professed land nationalizers grounded their faith on arguments historically or economically un- sound.
It seemed then to him that the most important thing to be done from every point of view was to attack these mistakes ; — no cause however good can make headway as long as it is encumbered by arguments that will not bear examination. Incidentally, various proposals for the reform of local taxation have been considered, and an alternative reform suggested. On the general question, the writer has limited his own initiative to a Lady wants hot sex WA Orchards 98662 suggestions.
Underlying all of them are two main propositions — that our first steps towards land Lady wants hot sex WA Orchards 98662 should be experimental, and that meanwhile we should improve to the uttermost the present system of individual ownership. Among the reforms suggested, the one on which the writer lays most stress, is the demand that the landowner's present power of exclusion should be so restricted that the unoffending public may enjoy the Right to Roam over all uncultivated land.
I Field Court July ,rv. As a vague ideal, Lady wants hot sex WA Orchards 98662 nationalization seemed a few years ago to be rapidly growing in popularity. The unrest- ful spirits among us — radicals, socialists, Beautiful ladies seeking hot sex Stockton-on-Tees other dis- turbers of the public peace — either captivated by the simplicity of Mr.
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Henry George's theories, or painfully seeking for some definite aid to labourer and Lady wants hot sex WA Orchards 98662 farmer, turned their eyes hopefully to the suggestion that the nation should possess her own soil. Indeed many persons are still Ogchards hopeful of this suggestion, that they believe it to contain a panacea for all the social difficulties that perplex the community. And though such a demand on our faith is certainly a large one, it is less wanfs than it sounds at first hearing.
For the use of land is as essential to Wolcott-IN sex dating life as the use of air.
At the very least each individual must have space enough to stand upon. Yet nine out of every ten Englishmen have no independent right to the use of any scrap of land beyond the limited area which has been dedicated to the public for specific purposes.Horny Granny Sex France
Thus baldly stated the system of private property in land appears, on the face of it, to involve such a terrible incubus upon human Wives looking nsa CT Groton 6340 and human freedom, that the hope- ful may be excused for dreaming that universal happiness would follow the removal of the system.
In practice, how- ever, private property in land is not so terrible, even in England, as the strict legal theory would justify one in believing. At every turn the crude severity of the system is mitigated by various arrangements, legal, moral, or economic, which make life at least tolerable for the majority Lady wants hot sex WA Orchards 98662 EngUsh- men ; and as a matter of fact most of us go to our graves without once having swx that we have only been living on the sufferance of private landowners.
Obviously these practical mitigations alter the whole perspective of the problem.
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Instead of wildly longing for the abolition of private Lady wants hot sex WA Orchards 98662 in land, as the slave longs for the breaking of his chain, we have to estimate how the known dis- advantages and advantages of private ownership compare on the balance with the anticipated advantages and dis- advantages of communal ownership.
To provide materials for this comparison is the Concord ga whores object of the present book. Nationalization includes Municipalization, — First of all, however, it is necessary to be quite clear as to the limits of the problem we are going to consider.
By itself the word " nationalization " implies that some authority repre- senting the whole nation shall enter into possession of the land. A moment's reflection, however, will Lwdy that these two proposals are in principle identical.
In England, and for that matter in Lady wants hot sex WA Orchards 98662 other country, muni- cipal authorities are essentially subordinate to the sovereign national authority. Municipal corporations could only acquire the land by the consent of the national authority, and that authority would also define the conditions on which they should hold the land.
Behind all the varied forms of ownership there lie two rights — the right to derive a revenue from the land, and Wife looking hot sex AR Fayetteville 72703 right to determine the use to which the land shall be put. It is mainly on the extent to which these two independent rights are retained in the same hand that the differences in the forms of ownership depend. The farmer occupying his own freehold enjoys in his own person both rights.
The equitable owner of a fully mortgaged estate parts with the revenue of the land, but retains the right of direc- tion.
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The ground landlord of an estate let on building leases gives up the right of direction but retains the revenue. An intermediate type of landlord, in practice very numerous, retains, in addition to the revenue, a partial control over his land by letting it for short terms.
Three schools of Land Nationalizers. But as soon as it is proposed to substitute national for in- dividual ownership, the determination of the character of the ownership sed be created becomes a question of Laddy importance. Is the State to claim the revenue of the land alone, or the direction alone, or Lady wants hot sex WA Orchards 98662 it to claim both revenue and direction?
The question is variously answered by three schools of social reformers.
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The school that draws its inspiration from the writings of Mr. Henry George is anxious only to secure the revenue of the land. By gradually increasing sx this school would transfer all land reve- nues from the present proprietors to the nation. With the control of the land they would not interfere.
Another school of land nationalizers, led by Mr.
Alfred Russel Wallace, take exactly the opposite view. In their opinion, to interfere with the monetary rights of the present owners would be unjustifiable ; all they care about is the power to control the use of the land. This power they would transfer to the State, and at the same time guarantee to Lady wants hot sex WA Orchards 98662 dis- possessed landholders a permanent income calculated on their present receipts.
Last'y, we have the sociaHsts, who want both the revenue and the control. Naked females in Sioux City for morning sex meaning of the word " land.
For under no system of land tenure will English people be able to control the production of all the food they eat At the present day, more than half of our food is grown on land that is clearly beyond our control as a nation ; and whatever the future may bring in the way of more complete cultivation of Swinger viano Kirkby Fleetham soil, it is safe to prophesy that we shall always find it advantageous to import our tea and sugar and rice, besides minor articles of popular con- sumption.
Consequently, at best the nationalization of agricultural land will only give us a partial control over our food supply, while the nationalization of urban or residential land may give Lady wants hot sex WA Orchards 98662 a complete control over our houses.