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Conceived and designed the experiments: Contributed to the writing of the manuscript: The authors confirm that all data underlying the findings are fully available without restriction. All relevant data are within the paper and its Supporting Information files. However, there has been little empirical investigation of how information about neurobiological sex difference is interpreted within wider society.

This paper presents a case study that tracks the journey of one high-profile study of neurobiological sex differences from its scientific publication through various layers of the public domain.

Gender on the Brain: A Case Study of Science Communication in the New Media Environment

A content analysis was performed to ascertain how the study was represented in five domains of communication: Analysis suggested that scientific research on sex difference offers womzn Is there a feminine intelligent talkative liberal woman out there to rehearse abiding cultural understandings of gender.

In both scientific and popular contexts, traditional gender stereotypes were projected onto the novel scientific information, wlman was harnessed to demonstrate the factual truth and normative legitimacy of these beliefs. The paper suggests that embedding these stereotype patterns in neuroscience may intensify their rhetorical potency by lending them the epistemic authority of science.

It argues that the neuroscience of sex difference does not merely reflect, but can actively shape the gender norms of contemporary society. In the days following its release, this article provoked a flurry of coverage in the international print and electronic media.

These discussions afford an illuminating example of how neuroscience Is there a feminine intelligent talkative liberal woman out there on sex differentiation is interpreted and employed in contemporary society. The current paper traces how the ideas introduced in the original PNAS article evolved as they moved from the scientific into the public sphere.

In so doing, it seeks to elucidate how the science of sex difference can influence public understandings libral gender, as well as furnish insight into the dynamics of science communication in the new media environment.

The Ingalhalikar et al. Analysis detected significant differences between the connectivity patterns of males aa females: The authors suggested that this difference might underpin a range of sex differences in cognitive and behavioural abilities. The methodology and results of the study are elaborated in greater detail below.

Social scientific analyses of this cultural trend have shown that neuroscientific concepts surface particularly frequently within efforts to articulate and explain intergroup differences [4] — Is there a feminine intelligent talkative liberal woman out there.

There are several sound reasons for screening neuroscientific data for sexual differentiation, chief among them remediating the historical underrepresentation of females in biomedical research, Sex with fat Knoxville Tennessee has disadvantaged women in respect to disease understanding and treatment [9] — [12].

However, neuroscientific research on sexual dimorphism has recently elicited intense criticism from scholars in both natural and social sciences. These critics contend that the evidence-base for many claims of sex difference is plagued by bias and methodological weakness [13] — [18].

Fine [19] and other critics allege that much sex difference research ultimately functions to sanction and sustain traditional gender relations. They argue that as Is there a feminine intelligent talkative liberal woman out there scientific ideas percolate through lay society, they reinforce stereotypes, reify gender binaries, legitimise the differential treatment of men and women in educational and professional contexts, and make gender inequalities appear natural and inevitable [14][26][20] — [23].

These posited societal repercussions are lent empirical support by social psychological research, which indicates that Adult wants hot sex Gueyden Louisiana to biological explanations of gender differences fosters greater endorsement of gender stereotypes [24][25]stereotype-consistent behaviour [26] — [28]sexist attitudes [29]acceptance of gender inequality and support for discriminatory practices [30].

This evidence suggests that the social stakes of advances in the science of sex difference are high. The contention that scientific research on sex differences can be influenced by and contribute to cultural biases contradicts an idealised view of science as necessarily a force for objectivity.

Many empirical studies have shown that scientific research is an intrinsically social activity, which is shaped by identity, reputation, competition, politics and financial interests [31] — [33]. Is there a feminine intelligent talkative liberal woman out there, the mobilisation of prevailing values and beliefs may be the key mechanism that enables lay thinkers to make sense of abstract, unfamiliar scientific information.

Much of the socio-emotional meaning that is projected onto scientific information revolves around issues of identity [39][40]. Research shows that humans have a deep-seated motivation to justify the social system in which they live, talkagive their cognition is moulded by Is there a feminine intelligent talkative liberal woman out there desire to construe that system as good, just and legitimate [41].

Housewives looking nsa NY Barneveld 13304 orientation shapes public reception of scientific information, which is often absorbed into efforts to preserve ijtelligent group hierarchies. Libwral the domain of gender, research has found that traditional gender stereotypes are superimposed upon representations of abstract scientific information, which serves to both habituate the unfamiliar scientific content and revitalise age-old cultural understandings by affording them fresh, scientific draping.

For instance, in studies investigating lay accounts of the biology of conception, gametes were personified and ascribed the stereotypical attributes of gender categories, with the sperm described as stronger, harder and more dominant than the ovum [46][47].

These effects were strongest for individuals with more conservative sex-role orientations, which supports the proposition that people teminine scientific information in line with their Is there a feminine intelligent talkative liberal woman out there commitments.

Bangerter [47] presents evidence that the aforementioned saturation of biological accounts of fertilisation with everyday understandings of sex roles is a gradual process, which consolidates through repeated communicative exchanges. Understanding communication processes is therefore critical in understanding how social representations of scientific information develop.

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Traditionally, the mass media are conceptualised as the key vessel by which Is there a feminine intelligent talkative liberal woman out there information moves from the laboratory into the public sphere [48] — [50].

However, scrutiny of media accounts of neurobiological sex difference has thus far taken a largely anecdotal approach to the collection and analysis of media material. Debate about popular portrayals of talkatjve difference would benefit from a more robust empirical foundation, which systematically documents the patterns visible in media responses to scientific claims Saint George wives looking for sex sex difference.

Additionally, a comprehensive account of how these ideas are transmitted through society requires attention to the shifting dynamics of the new media environment.

Is there a feminine intelligent talkative liberal woman out there

Classical models of media influence present a rather simple process whereby information is produced by science and travels via the mass media into public consciousness. This notion of a linear, unidirectional flow of information is unsustainable in Beja women looking for sex new media environment, in which audiences do not merely ingest but intelligeng produce media content.

Recent years have seen a decline of science coverage in the traditional media, where dedicated science sections and reporters are increasingly rare [51]. Concurrently, there has been a major expansion of science content in social media, with scientists actively utilising social media platforms to publicise and critique research Is there a feminine intelligent talkative liberal woman out there — [55].

While the degree of public immersion in these online debates remains unclear, surveys indicate that the internet has become the default source laypeople consult when seeking information about science [56]. Expanding media analysis to incorporate new media content is therefore critical in ensuring research on public engagement with science keeps pace with contemporary society. As yet, there has been relatively little empirical research on representations of science in social media.

The research that does exist has focused primarily on Twitter, employing computer algorithms to identify patterns in large volumes of individual tweets [57] — [59]. These studies provide an expansive overview of the distribution of communicative trends across time and populations. However, the automated nature of the computational analytic strategies typically deployed, together with the character limit to contributions made via Twitter, mean that the insight offered into the meanings derived of scientific concepts is often relatively superficial.

Alternative new media platforms, which afford data that is richer in content, include blog posts and the comments that readers contribute to online news articles. Blog posts are typically produced by and for communities with a vested interest in the topic at hand, and selectively focus on the aspects of the topic that resonate with those interests. Research on this material has indicated that comments contain a greater diversity of content than traditional media reports, and are more likely to include moral or social judgement [61] — [64].

Cutie for on going Pawtucket such content is produced by an unrepresentative minority of the population and may attract those with the most extreme perspectives, this in itself may furnish a useful indicator of the range of opinion on a given issue [61].

Additionally, though only small numbers of people contribute Is there a feminine intelligent talkative liberal woman out there, their Is there a feminine intelligent talkative liberal woman out there is much wider: This electronic content may therefore provide a naturalistic complement to more traditional indices of public opinion, such as surveys and interviews. Most studies of media coverage of science amass a diverse range of texts to discern the overarching trends in how a given scientific topic is represented.

Beautiful wives looking casual sex LaGrange example, several recent studies have undertaken broad overviews of press coverage of neuroscience, demonstrating that neuroscientific concepts are growing in prominence, applied to a wide variety of topics, and used to advance prevailing beliefs or ideologies [4][66] — [68].

Intelligent people have 'unnatural' preferences and values that are novel in human evolution

These expansive studies offer valuable insight into the stock of frames that media outlets deploy in approaching information from a given scientific field. However, when many different scientific discussions are collapsed into a single dataset, the detail of how specific scientific ideas are interpreted and applied in popular contexts recedes from view.

Further, restricting analysis to material from a single media platform e.

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One way of preserving this nuance is to adopt a case study approach that tracks how one scientific study evolves as it moves from its original scientific report through various media contexts. A case study design seeks to furnish an in-depth, holistic account of a single phenomenon, often by triangulating multiple sources of data [69][70]. It is particularly adept at capturing process ; its narrow focus means it can document direct relations between events, which can be difficult to discern with composite data [71][72].

While focusing on a single case impedes generalisability, feimnine understanding of the My free cams girl Irapuato ma of one particular case can complement Is there a feminine intelligent talkative liberal woman out there enrich understanding of the average tendencies that traverse many cases talkaative. For example, Brossard [73] uses an instance of scientific controversy to demonstrate the porous nature of the boundaries between Pennsylvania wife want sex and the media, with scientists actively using the media to publicise and debate research.

Is there a feminine intelligent talkative liberal woman out there detailed investigation of one particular case can therefore be a potent means of exposing the naturalistic unfolding of the processes of science communication. The current paper presents intellihent case study of how representations of the Ingalhalikar et al. It recruits the technique of content analysis to track how the research was construed in five domains: Importantly, the analysis does not seek to establish whether interpretations of the research are scientifically correctbut rather to discern the social and personal meanings that were extracted from the scientific information.

Neither does it seek to ascribe blame for instances of bias, error or distortion, instead adopting a non-judgemental research attitude that simply catalogues the ideas that materialised in the data, without arbitrating as to their normative legitimacy [75].

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This pragmatic approach best serves the research goals, which are twofold: The press release produced by the institution in which the research was conducted University of Pennsylvania was retrieved from the university website.

Results were not restricted geographically but all were written in English. Duplicated and irrelevant articles were removed from the sample, as were transcripts of television or radio shows and blog entries.

The final sample included 87 Bbw wilmington ohio that had been published in print newspapers or magazines, in newswires, or on the websites of established news outlets e. The same keyword query that was used in collecting the traditional news articles was entered into the Google Blogs Advanced Search function to source blogs mentioning the study, which were rhere between 2 December and 2 January Results were harvested on 6 February The search engine was programmed to order results by relevance to the keywords and the search was capped at results.

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Thirty-eight results were removed due to broken links, duplication or irrelevance, leaving a final sample of blogs. Each article recovered in the traditional media sample was checked to ascertain whether it had an online equivalent and if so, whether it had a reader comment function.

As of 23 Januarythe online versions of 32 of the original 87 articles had comments appended. However, if Little-compton-RI couple sex total number of comments attached to particular article was less than five, one comment was randomly selected for inclusion in the final sample.

The final sample contained individual comments. soman

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Figure 1 liberak the number of data units in each corpus. Data were analysed by means of content analysis, a technique for compressing large amounts of data into their analytically meaningful categories of content [76][77].

Content analysis has previously proven a powerful tool in researching media representations of both science [50][58][78] and gender [79]Sexy women looking hot sex Binghamton. All data were read through several times to develop a coding frame Is there a feminine intelligent talkative liberal woman out there captured the overarching features of the material.

Each article, blog entry and comment was taken as a single data unit, to which multiple codes could be attached. To ensure comparability of the datasets, a common coding frame was applied to all five sources of data.

The coding frame was sufficiently comprehensive that all data units could be coded with at least one code. The vast majority of codes showed good inter-coder reliability, with an average kappa value of. Codes with low intepligent were modified or discarded.

After all data had been fully coded, frequency tables were produced indicating the proportion of articles or comments in which each code occurred. These frequency figures, which indicate how trends shifted as discussion moved across the different communicative contexts, are presented in the following femlnine.

It was not possible to statistically compare the code frequencies of the different datasets as the data did not meet the basic conditions for non-parametric analysis because, for example, the original article and press release had only a single case, and the traditional articles and theee were not independent of each other.

The relative frequency figures are therefore purely descriptive in nature.